Most of us have an understanding of what a brand is and why brand names are important to businesses. We think of well-known brands like Coca-Cola, Hallmark, or Apple. Companies invest in advertising and product quality over many years to create brand awareness, establish brand identity, and build brand equity. This got us thinking, what about sports? Is brand development in sports the same as or different from brand development in other businesses? Can the strength of a brand name in sports be measurable or quantified? We decided to tackle this quandary by looking at a successful brand, and recently successful sports team, the Chicago Cubs.
We have all heard of computer languages. They define how we develop software, providing a programmer with a way of communicating with the computer. SQL, a popular database querying tool, literally stands for "structured query language." Most would agree that Python and C# are computer languages. But is SQL actually a language? What about XML, XPath, or XQuery? How about SAS or R? It seems naive to claim these are all languages, as their functions range from queries, data storage and organization, to front-end and back-end development, and even statistical analysis. In fact, R is based on C, so does R still count as its own language? In this post we tackle what makes a computer language a language.
The relational model for databases has been the dominant model for database systems for many years. Perhaps one of the most important reasons this type of database became popular was because of its programming abstraction and structured query language (SQL). While we all may be familiar with SQL and relational databases, how did their rise to power begin? Will they remain dominant in this new age of Big Data analytics?
Essentially, relational databases, and the various software systems used to maintain them (RDBMS), are digital databases whose organization is based upon the relational model of data, first proposed by IBM developer Edgar. F. Codd in 1970. Most of the innumerable data transactions we routinely make today, e.g. using bank accounts and credit cards, trading stock, making travel reservations and participating in online auctions to name a few, use relational databases based on the abstract and sophisticated mathematical theory that Codd first published in his article, A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks. Oracle’s database structure and software originated from this innovative paper.